Verb List

Verb List


 

Regular Verbs

base -s form past past participle -ing form notes

call

calls

called

called

calling

clean

cleans

cleaned

cleaned

cleaning

look

looks

looked

looked

looking

1

talk

talks

talked

talked

talking

1

end

ends

ended

ended

ending

2

wait

waits

waited

waited

waiting

2

kiss

kisses

kissed

kissed

kissing

3

wash

washes

washed

washed

washing

3

live

lives

lived

lived

living

4

love

loves

loved

loved

loving

4

beg

begs

begged

begged

begging

5

sin

sins

sinned

sinned

sinning

5

play

plays

played

played

playing

stay

stays

stayed

stayed

staying

cry

cries

cried

cried

crying

6

studies

studied

studied

studying

6

die

dies

died

died

dying

tie

ties

tied

tied

tying

Notes :

1. Pronunciation differences in past/past participle after /p, s, k, f/ sounds

2. Pronunciation differences in past/past participle after /t, d/ sounds

3. Spelling and pronunciation differences in -s form after /s, sh, ch, z/ sounds

4. Dropping of “silent e” with -ing endings

5. Doubled consonants after “short” vowel sounds

6. Spelling differences when “y” is preceded by a consonant


Irregular Verbs

Verbs like “cut” do not change in the past or past participle.

base -s form past past participle -ing form
cut cuts cut cut cutting
fit fits fit fit fitting
hit hits hit hit hitting
let lets let let letting
put puts put put putting
quit quits quit quit quitting
set sets set set setting
shut shuts shut shut shutting
split splits split split splitting
upset upsets upset upset upsetting
burst bursts burst burst bursting
cast casts cast cast casting
cost costs cost cost costing*
hurt hurts hurt hurt hurting
spread spreads spread spread spreading
knit knits knit/knitted knit/knitted knitting
sit sits sat sat sitting
spit spits spat/spit spat/spit spitting

Verbs like “swim” shift vowel sounds in the past and past participle, usually from “i” to “a” to “u”
base -s form past past participle -ing form
begin begins began begun beginning
swim swims swam swum swimming
ring rings rang rung ringing
sing sings sang sung singing
spring springs sprang sprung springing
cling clings clung clung clinging
fling flings flung flung flinging
sling slings slung slung slinging
sting stings stung stung stinging
swing swings swung swung swinging
wring wrings wrung wrung wringing
hang hangs hung/hanged** hung/hanged hanging
drink drinks drank drunk sinking
shrink shrinks shrank shrunk shrinking
stink stinks stank / stunk stunk stinking
Verbs like “think” use “ought” or “aught” in the past and past participle.
base -s form past past participle -ing form
think thinks thought thought thinking
bring brings brought brought bringing
buy buys bought bought buying
seek seeks sought sought seeking
fight fights fought fought fighting
catch catches caught caught catching
teach teaches taught taught teaching
Verbs like “keep” shift from (long) “ee” to (short) “e” sounds in the past and past participle.
base -s form past past participle -ing form
creep creeps crept crept creeping
keep keeps kept kept keeping
sleep sleeps slept slept sleeping
sweep sweeps swept swept sweeping
weep weeps wept wept weeping
bleed bleeds bled bled bleeding
breed breeds bred bred breeding
feed feeds fed fed feeding
flee flees fled fled fleeing
lead leads led led leading
speed speeds sped/speeded sped/speeded speeding
meet meets met met meeting
bend bends bent bent bending
lend lends lent lent lending
send sends sent sent sending
spend spends spent spent spending
deal deals dealt dealt dealing
feel feels felt felt feeling
kneel kneels knelt knelt kneeling
dream dreams dreamt/dreamed dreamt/dreamed dreaming
mean means meant meant meaning
base -s form past past participle -ing form
spill spills spilt/spilled spilt/spilled spilling
build builds built built building
burn burns burnt/burned burnt/burned burning

Verbs like “sell” shift to “old” endings in the past and past participle.
base -s form past past participle -ing form
hold holds held held holding
sell sells sold sold selling
tell tells told told telling
Verbs like “find” shift to “ound” endings in the past and past participle.
base -s form past past participle -ing form
find finds found found finding
grind grinds ground ground grinding
wind winds wound wound winding
Verbs like “break” shift vowel sounds in the past and past participle. They also use the “en” ending in the past participle. 
base -s form past past participle -ing form
break breaks broke broken breaking
choose chooses chose chosen choosing
freeze freezes froze frozen freezing
speak speaks spoke spoken speaking
steal steals stole stolen stealing
wake wakes woke woken waking
weave weaves wove woven weaving
arise arises arose arisen arising
drive drives drove driven driving
ride rides rode ridden riding
rise rises rose risen rising
write writes wrote written writing
bite bites bit bitten biting
hide hides hid hidden hiding
slide slides slid slidden / slid sliding
get gets got gotten getting
forget forgets forgot forgotten forgetting
give gives gave given giving
forgive forgives forgave forgiven forgiving
forbid forbids forbade/forbad forbidden forbidding
fall falls fell fallen falling
swell swells swole / swelled swollen swelling
base -s form past past participle -ing form
dive dives dove / dived dived diving
Verbs like “blow” shift vowel sounds in the past and past participle. They also take on the “wn” ending in the past participle. 
base -s form past past participle -ing form
blow blows blew blown blowing
fly flies flew flown flying
grow grows grew grown growing
know knows knew known knowing
throw throws threw thrown throwing
draw draws drew drawn drawing
withdraw withdraws withdrew withdrawn withdrawing
show shows showed shown showing
Verbs like “eat” shift vowel sounds in the past and past participle. They also take on the “en” ending in the past participle.
base -s form past past participle -ing form
eat eats ate eaten eating
beat beats beat beaten beating
take takes took taken taking
forsake forsakes forsook forsaken forsaking
mistake mistakes mistook mistaken mistaking
shake shakes shook shaken shaking
base -s form past past participle -ing form
make makes made made making
Verbs like “wear” shift vowel sounds in the past and past participle. They take on the “rn” ending in the past participle.
base -s form past past participle -ing form
swear swears swore sworn swearing
wear wears wore worn wearing
tear tears tore torn tearing
bear bears bore born bearing
stand stands stood stood standing
understand understands understood understood understanding
base -s form past past participle -ing form
become becomes became become becoming
come comes came come coming
run runs ran run running
Verbs like “dig” shift vowel sounds in the past and past participle. Usually the past and past participle are the same. 
base -s form past past participle -ing form
dig digs dug dug digging
spin spins spun spun spinning
stick sticks stuck stuck sticking
strike strikes struck struck/stricken striking
base -s form past past participle -ing form
do does did done doing
go goes went gone going

Verbs like “have” change spelling and sometimes sound in the past and past participles.
base -s form past past participle -ing form
have has had had having
hear hears heard heard hearing
lay lays laid laid laying
pay pays paid paid paying
say says said said saying
base -s form past past participle -ing form
lie lies lay lain lying

Verbs like “lose” change spelling and sound in the past and past participle.
base -s form past past participle -ing form
light lights lit/lighted lit/lighted lighting
lose loses lost lost losing
leave leaves left left leaving
base -s form past past participle -ing form
prove proves proved proven/proved proving
Verbs like “read” change sound, but not spelling, in the past and past participle.
base -s form past past participle -ing form
read reads read read reading
Verbs like “see” have sound or spelling changes in the past and past participle.
base -s form past past participle -ing form
see sees saw seen seeing
sew sews sewed sewn/sewed sewing
base -s form past past participle -ing form
shave shaves shaved shaven/shaved shaving
shine shines shined or shone shined or shone shining
Verbs like “win” change spelling and sound in the past and past participle.
base -s form past past participle -ing form
shoot shoots shot shot shooting
wind wins won won winning
The verb “be” has its own unique usage.
be is are or am was or were been/being


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