The Word is:”by”
after a passive verb.
“the door was opened by my cousin Annie”
synonyms: through the agency of, by means of, under the aegis of, using, utilizing, employing, with the help of, with the aid of, as a result of, because of, by dint of, by way of, by virtue of, via, through
“he was arrested by the police”
after a noun denoting an action.
“a clear decision by the electorate”
identifying the author of a text, idea, or work of art.
“a book by Ernest Hemingway”
2.indicating the means of achieving something.
indicating a term to which an interpretation is to be assigned.
“what is meant by ‘fair’?”
indicating a name according to which a person is known.
“she mostly calls me by my last name”
indicating the means of transport selected for a journey.
“the cost of travelling by bus”
indicating the other parent of someone’s child or children.
“Richard is his son by his third wife”
indicating the sire of a pedigree animal, especially a horse.
“a black filly by Goldfuerst”
(followed by a noun without a determiner) in various phrases indicating how something happens.
“I heard by chance that she has married again”
3.indicating the amount or size of a margin.
indicating a quantity or amount.
“billing is by the minute”
in phrases indicating something happening repeatedly or progressively, typically with repetition of a unit of time.
“colours changing minute by minute”
identifying a parameter.
“a breakdown of employment figures by age and occupation”
expressing multiplication, especially in dimensions.
“a map measuring 400 by 600 mm”
4.indicating a deadline or the end of a particular time period.
synonyms: no later than, in good time for, at, before
“please be there by midday”
5.indicating location of a physical object beside a place or object.
synonyms: next to, beside, next door to, alongside, by/at the side of, abreast of, adjacent to, cheek by jowl with, side by side with; More
past and beyond.
“I drove by our house”
synonyms: past, in front of, beyond
“go by the building”
6.indicating the period in which something happens.
7.concerning; according to.
synonyms: according to, with, as far as … is concerned, concerning
“anything you do is all right by me”
8.used in mild oaths.
“a car flashed by on the other side of the road”
synonyms: past, on, along, beyond
“people hurried by”
Source credit: Google